Changing procedure of linearities of materials to the desired directions as hot or cold is called
as bending.

Bending of materials of copper, iron, aluminium and others can be performed,By means of , you obtain whether time savings also cost savings.

Bending of pipe /tube in quality wise could be affacted by many different factors.Methods used
in production, worker capacity of knowledge, skills, authority of machine, type of material and properties of materials , conformity of material to the machine and to the work,capability of machine
and environmental factors are affecting influences of quality.


Many diverse methods can be used in bending procedures.However, to select the most suitable method depends on the type of material and required shape of bending .

2.1.Bending with Mandrel

With mandrel bending,after pipe/tube is placed for bending purpose, Movable clamp and tool clamp
squeezes pipe/tube.On bending form tool pipe/tube is bended at the tool radius.If mandrel and wiper bending is used then you obtain best qualified results on thinner pipe/tubes and on smaller radiuses

2.1.1.Manuel Semi-Automatic Pipe/Tube and Profile Bending Machines

If small quantities (between 25-50 pcs.per day) of pipe/tube are intended to be bent can be prefferred.it is semi-automatic machine.Bending of pipe/tube is provided by motor, but
during functioning, operator help is needed.it has not got so much cost.The simplest model of mandrel pipe/tube bending machine.


2.1.2.Semi-Automatic Bending (Hydraulic Bending)

Pipe/tube bending machines are manufacatured as mechanically, hydraulically and electrically. Hydraulic Pipe/Tube bending machines functions using hydraulic pressure. These machines have central bending form tools suitable for pipe/tube diameters to be bent. Bending form tools are manufactured according to elbows, connection bends on the parts.

2.1.3.NC Controlled Pipe and Tube Bending Machines

The machine includes three pistons.Out of hydraulic squeezing, there is hydraulic mandrel available at the back side.

2.1.4.CNC Bending

CNC bending machines function as having similiar pocedures to other machines.The main difference is servo drives control distances between curve and curve surface .Carriage system is
a standard system.Bending Apparatus movement and sequences, part data storage and other parts
are controlled automatically by computer.The operator mounts pipe/tube to the machine, pushes
the start button, the machine bends the pipe/tube, the operator unmount the pipe/tube from the machine, and the same operation successively is carried out. The prepared drawings of pipe/tube intended to be bent are loaded to the computer that is found on the control panel.After performing required commands, the machine is run.CNC bending machines used in precise bendings, can bend the same part in different dimensions and different angles.

2.2.Squeeze Bending

Squeeze bending has similiar propertes to mandrel bending. Bending form tool and clamp form the system.Also sliding part is available.Used for obtaining bending radius.Not suitable for other bending procedures.

2.3.Pres Bükme

In this bending method, after pipe/tube is placed, bending Radius is determined by adjusting
double support corresponding to radius block as seen on the figure.Radius block coming from upper section can be run by adapting manuel or hydraulic control system.

In this bending method, pipe/tube is not supported from inner section.This bending method is
used for obtaining wider range of radiuses and for thicker thicknesses.Not suitable for other bending procedures.

2.4.Three Roll Bending

Rolls are arranged as pyramidally, upper roll is non-driven, upside and downside adjustable by means of adjust rod.lower rolls are driven and runs by means of forward and reward turn pedals. With profile bending machine, bendings are carried out as having curved shapes.



Steel,iron,aluminium,copper and other pipe/tube parts and profiles can be bent on bending machine.



Bend die is an equipment that pipe/tube is wrapped over during bending.It is fundamental material that supplies the required pipe/tube/profile bending.Bend die prevents deformations and allow us to obtain best suitable and perfect bending .The diameter found outside of bending die equals to the diameters of pipe/tube.



Design Stages of Bending Die:

– Diameter of bend die is determined.

– According to pipe/tube properties needed to bent, general shape of tool is machined.

– According to the machine standards, holes, key slots and fixed clamp mounting places are machined.

– To provide the bending form tool mounting with fixed clamp, mounting holes are machined.



Fixed Clamp is a tooling equipment that squeezes pipe/tube and functions as a clamp or vise and prevents sliding of pipe/tube as bending.


Movable clamp provides squeezing and bending pipe/tube as bending.Prevents bending die sliding.



Mandrel is an equipment that stays inside the tube and center of bend as bending and prevents pipe/tube propagation that is covered by outside spinning. Ball mandrels are used to obtain bending in smaller radiuses.Ball mandrel supplies maximum support to pipe/tube during bending and allow to perform bending without any discrepancies.Balls have the ability of moving freely as positionwise.Ball mandrels can be added or removed after bending operation.

If mandrel outside diameter equals to pipe/tube inner radius, then mandrel passes to inner radius tight fit and obstructs fit,Therefore mandrel outside diameter shall be slight smaller than inner radius of pipe/tube inner diameter.


During Bending operation, it is a part that supports to pipe/tube and moves together. It corresponds to reaction forces that is produced by bending power.The sliding support as backs up pipe/tube as bending.



Wiper die is a pipe/tube bending equipment that prevents wrinkles and deformations by supporting to pipe/tube from inner section of it while bending pipe/tube.